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Air Leakage

RDH: Real Energy Savings From Windows Upgrades
RDH Building Engineering bulletin presents the thermal improvements, improved airtightness, and measured energy savings resulting from the upgrading of windows in two 1970's vintage residential concrete towers. (PDF)

DCN: Future Building Codes Challenge Window Manufacturing
Daily Commercial News says windows have traditionally represented up to 80 per cent of a building’s exterior cladding system. However, building codes across the country are evolving towards ever-higher levels of energy-efficiency performance. In order to meet their overall energy efficiency objectives, ratios on many buildings have already dropped to as low as 35 per cent in some locations.

FEN BC: Summary of 2019 Fenestration Industry Panel Discussion on Codes
Fenestration Association of BC summarizes their recent Code Talkers panel discussion around code interpretation and compliance issues facing western Canada’s building envelope industry. (PDF)

MH: NBC 2015 Other Fenestration Assemblies, Intent Behind New Code
Morrison Hershfield paper NBC 2015 Subsection 5.9.3 Other Fenestration Assemblies, The Intent Behind the New Code Provisions presents a summary of the new requirements and supporting guidance, identifies departures from standards commonly used and gives useful background information. (PDF)

FEN Canada: Combustible Fenestration In Buildings Of Noncombustible Construction
Fenestration Canada online slide show presentation Fenestration with Combustible Components in Buildings of Non-combustible Construction covers regulatory requirements for fire, challenges, approach, and process. (PDF)

Berkeley Univ: Window Performance For Human Thermal Comfort
University of California Berkeley study Window Performance For Human Thermal Comfort reviewed literature to identify relevant work relating to windows and thermal comfort, and proposes an analytical method for evaluating this impact. (PDF)

EWC: How Efficient Windows Improve Comfort
Efficient Windows Collaborative explains, with drawings, how efficient windows make homes more comfortable. They cover inside surface temperatures of different types of glass, winter & summer thermal comfort, and probabilities of discomfort.

EWC: High Performance Windows Have Less Condensation
Efficient Windows Collaborative describes how high performance windows have less condensation including the impact of Low-E glass and insulating spacers, and impact of temperature, humidity and glass choice on center-of-glass condensation.

FENBC: Condensation on Energy Efficient Windows
Fenestration Association of BC bulletin Exterior and Interior Condensation on Energy Efficient Windows describes the reasons for exterior and interior condensation on windows. (PDF)

GBA: Rating Windows For Condensation Resistance
Green Building Advisor describes how window shoppers are confused by the two rival methods for measuring condensation resistance.

Green Building Elements: Windows Sweat
Green Building Elements describes what wet windows are trying to tell you.

IRC: Condensation Between Panes Of Double Windows
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction digest Condensation Between Panes of Double Windows covers factors affecting moisture flow, ratio of air flows to air space for no condensation, total air pressure differences, venting requirements, and sealed glazing units. 1960

IRC: Condensation On Inside Surfaces Of Windows
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction explains how temperature, humidity and wind can cause condensation on the inside surfaces of windows. 1960 (PDF)

IRC: Evaluating Window & Wall Interface For Risk Of Condensation On Windows
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction is researching to evaluate the likelihood that condensation will form at the window frame perimeter of an interface assembly.

RDH: Glass & Glazing On Tall Towers, Is It All It's Cracked Up To Be?
RDH Building Engineering bulletin Glass & Glazing On Tall Towers: Is it all it's Cracked Up to Be? says insulating glazing units are one of the most valued components on a building from a comfort and enjoyment perspective. They are also one of the largest assets requiring cyclical renewals. (PDF)
Energy Savings

PNNL: Winter Field Evaluation Of Highly Insulating Windows
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory report Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment, describes and summarizes 70 days of testing on two homes. It shows significant whole-house energy savings and comfort improvement with the high-performance windows. (PDF)
Fading Furniture & UV

EWC: Efficient Windows Reduce UV & Fading
Efficient Windows Collaborative describes how different types of glazing can affect the type and intensity of transmitted radiation that may cause fading of organic materials such as carpet, fabrics, paper, artwork, paints, and wood.

FSEC: Overview Of UV Transmittance & Fading
Florida Solar Energy Center describes UV transmittance and fading, causes, ultraviolet radiation, and a damage-weighting formula to quantify effects of fading.

FSEC: Causes & Solutions For Window Glare
Florida Solar Energy Center online glare tutorial describes types and causes of window glare, and strategies for exterior window shading, and interior room design and finishing.
Green & Sustainable

GGF: Online Carbon Calculator For Energy Efficient Windows
UK Glass & Glazing Federation online Carbon Calculator allows you to find out how much you can save on energy bills and reduce carbon footprint through installation of energy efficient windows, and how much more you could save by installing the highest rated windows.
Moisture & Water

Building Science: Water Management With Housewraps, Flashings & Windows
Building Science paper, with drawings, describes design considerations for water management with housewraps, flashings, and windows. (PDF)

Building Science: Windows & Water Leakage Testing
Building Science online slide show presentation on Windows & Water Leakage Testing covers window classifications, laboratory test standards, specifying windows and testing, field performance testing, and window & door failures and details. (PDF)

CMHC: How Codes, Testing & Standards Address Water Penetration Of Windows
CMHC study documents how existing and future codes, standards, testing & certification processes address in-service water penetration resistance of windows. (PDF)

IRC: Report On Effectiveness Of Wall-Window Interface To Manage Rainwater
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction laboratory project evaluates specific window/wall interface construction details to determine how effectively they manage rainwater intrusion into a wall assembly. (PDF)

IRC: Standard For Assessing Wall-Window Interface To Manage Rainwater
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction presents a proposed laboratory test protocol for assessing the effectiveness of wall-window interface details with regard to management of rainwater, and provides a rationale for a performance-based approach to the evaluation method. (PDF)

IRC: Tests Of Water Penetration Through Wall-Window Interfaces
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction reports on results obtained from laboratory testing of two sets of wall-window interface details and variations on their implementation, that are representative of residential and light commercial window installation practice in the US. Results from these tests indicate that the window installations details of the type assessed in this study are adequate to manage even the most significant rainfall events as might occur in North America. (PDF)

RDH: Reports On Study Of Water Penetration Resistance Of Windows
RDH Engineering provides detailed summary reports from their research into water penetration of windows. (PDF)

RDH: Service Life Approach To Water Penetration Control For Windows
RDH Engineering report describes issues surrounding water penetration of windows, from both a codes and a standards perspective, and a building and window design and installation perspective, and recommends solutions for mandating effective water penetration control. (PDF)

Window & Balcony Safety: Canadian Safety Program
Partners Promoting Window and Balcony Safety, a Canadian program to raise awareness about risks associated with windows, balconies & decks, provides information and education for safe use of these areas of a home.
Solar Heat Gain

Building Science: Thermal Bridges & Solar Control
Building Science online slide show presentation on thermal bridges & solar control covers heat flow basics, walls & windows practical detailing applications, and window solar gain control. (PDF)

CMHC: Effects Of Reflective Interior Shades On Cooling Loads
CMHC study on potential of a reflective interior shading device to reduce cooling loads, showed they reduced cooling energy consumption for the entire cooling season, their use cannot be safely recommended for certain window types due to potential window glazing problems. (PDF)

FSEC: Selecting Right Glass For Solar Shading
Florida Solar Energy Center online slide show provides detailed information on solar heat gain, spectrally selective glazing, how to select the right glass to reduce solar heat gain while admitting adequate daylight illumination. (PDF)

FSEC: Solar Gain & Window Selection
Florida Solar Energy Center describes solar heart gain, and how to select window glass types for cold and hot climates.

GBA: Importance of Windows in Hot Climates
Green Building Advisor says glazing performance trumps insulation R-values in areas where the difference between indoor and outdoor temps is not so great.

IRC: Principles Of Solar Shading
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction digest on Principles of Solar Shading describes considerations for a shading system that involve a compromise between the requirement of unobstructed view and the exclusion of solar energy. 1964

IRC: Selecting Low-E Glazing For Optimum Energy Performance
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction research report describes energy consumption of high solar heat gain (HSG) and low solar heat gain (LSG) glazing systems in twin research houses. Study found that generally, in locations where there are more than 3000 Celsius heating degree days (which applies to almost all of Canada), the Low-E High Solar Gain glazing provides the best overall energy performance. (PDF)

IRC: Solar Heat Gain Through Glass In Walls
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction digest describes causes, problems and solutions for solar heat gain through windows. 1963

NRC: Savings Using Low-Solar & High-Solar Gain Glazings
Natural Resources Canada lessons from the field include the observation that energy efficiency benefits are dependent on the mode of operation, orientation and climate, and that combinations of glazing (e.g., LSG on the north, HSG on the south) can generate the best results.
Sound & Noise

Architect Magazine: Sound-Abatement Windows Can Help Make House Hushed & Healthy
Architect Magazine describes how sound-control windows are increasingly in demand for dwellings in dense urban or suburban areas, and lists suppliers of these types of windows.

CMHC: Noise Isolation Provided By Windows
CMHC summarizes research on noise isolation provided by various types of windows and lists STC ratings for each. (PDF)

HGTV Remodels: Article & Video On Acoustic Windows
HGTV Remodels article & video on acoustic windows describes features, benefits, and tips for selecting them.

IRC: Sound Transmission Through Windows
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction digest describes principles of sound transmission through windows, difference between single, double & triple glazing, and designing for noise control.
U Factor

FEN BC: Reference Procedure for Simulating Spandrel U-Factors
Fenestration Association of BC online Reference Procedure for Simulating Spandrel U-Factors is a voluntary procedure that may be used to determine spandrel panel U-factors for whole building energy design standard compliance.
Visible Transmittance

EWC: Overview Of Visible Transmittance
Efficient Windows Collaborative explains, with drawing, that visible transmittance (VT) is an optical property that indicates the amount of visible light transmitted.
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